Tomato Production Guide: Guide to Producing High-yielding Tomato Crop

  • , द्वारा Agriplex India
  • 17 मिनट पढ़ने का समय

 Introduction: 

Tomatoes are a versatile and widely enjoyed fruit that can be grown in gardens or even in containers on balconies and patios. If you're eager to cultivate your delicious tomatoes, this comprehensive guide will take you through the step-by-step process, from selecting the right tomato varieties to harvesting your juicy, sun-ripened crop. Let's dive into the complete steps involved in tomato production. 

Climate and Soil Requirements  

Tomatoes are incredibly adaptable and can thrive in diverse soil types, including sandy to heavy clay. However, for optimal growth, it's recommended to cultivate tomatoes in well-drained soils such as sandy or red loam, enriched with ample organic matter and maintaining a pH level between 6.0 and 7.0.   

 

Variety Selection: 

Choose tomato varieties that suit your growing conditions and culinary preferences. Consider factors such as fruit size, color, taste, disease resistance, and intended use (e.g., slicing, canning, or cherry tomatoes).  

Choose the best high-yield tomato seeds from Agriplex India 

State 

Most sold Tomato seeds  

Telangana 

Heemsohna Tomato, Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251), Lakshmi Tomato, Abhilash Tomato, Polyana Tomato  

Andhra Pradesh 

Abhilash Tomato, Heemshikhar Tomato, US 440 Tomato, Sikinder TomatoSaaho Tomato seeds (To 3251)

Karnataka 

 Heemsohna Tomato, Abhilash Tomato, US 440 Tomato, Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251), Heemshikhar Tomato

Maharashtra 

SW 1508, Abhilash Tomato, Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251), US 440 Tomato, Heemsohna Tomato

Madhya Pradesh 

US 440 Tomato, Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251),Abhi     lash TomatoHeemsohna Tomato, SW 1508 

Tamil Nadu 

Abhilash Tomato, Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251), US 440 Tomato, Heemsohna Tomato, SW 1508

Rajasthan 

Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251), TO-3150, Abhilash Tomato, NS 4266, Heemshikhar Tomato, Heemsohna Tomato  

Odisha 

Heemsohna Tomato, Saaho Tomato seeds (To 3251), Abhilash Tomato, NS 4266, Heemshikhar TomatoTO-3150   

 

 To find more Tomato seeds Click Here 

Seed Starting: 

Start tomato seeds indoors, 6-8 weeks before the last expected frost date in your area. Fill seed trays or small pots with a well-draining seed starting mix. Plant the seeds at a depth of ¼ to ½ inch and moisten the soil. Place the trays/pots in a warm area with ample sunlight or use artificial grow lights for germination. 

Transplanting 

Once the tomato seedlings have developed several sets of true leaves and the risk of frost has passed, it's time to transplant them into larger containers or directly into the garden soil. Choose a sunny location with fertile, well-drained soil. If transplanting into containers, ensure they have sufficient drainage holes and are large enough to accommodate root growth. 

Soil Preparation: 

Prepare the soil before transplanting by removing weeds, loosening the soil, and incorporating organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure. Tomatoes prefer slightly acidic soil with a pH level between 6 and 7. Conduct a soil test to adjust the pH if necessary. Adequate soil preparation ensures optimal nutrient availability and drainage. 

Planting and Spacing: 

When planting your tomato seedlings, dig holes that are deep enough to bury the lower part of the stem, including the cotyledon leaves. Remove the lower leaves, leaving only the top few sets. Space the plants according to the specific variety's recommended spacing guidelines, typically around 18-24 inches apart. Firmly press the soil around the base of each plant for stability. 

Watering and Fertilization: 

Tomatoes require consistent moisture throughout their growing period. Water the plants deeply, providing about 1-1.5 inches of water per week, depending on weather conditions. Avoid overhead watering to minimize the risk of disease. Apply organic mulch around the plants to help retain moisture and reduce weed growth. Additionally, feed the tomatoes regularly with a balanced fertilizer, following package instructions, to ensure healthy growth and fruit production. 

Nutrient Management in Tomato Crop 

By implementing effective nutrient management practices, you can provide your tomato crops with the essential elements they need for optimal growth, health, and high yields 

The nutrient requirement for hybrids is 200:250:250 kg of NPK per ha. 75 % of P (187.5 kg P which comes to 1172 kg of superphosphate) is applied as basal. The remaining quantity of 200:62.5:250 kg of NPK per ha is applied through fertigation. Every day irrigation should be given for one hour. Along with this, water-soluble fertilizers have to be given. This dose is split and given once in 3 days for the entire crop period through fertigation as detailed below. 

Source - https://agritech.tnau.ac.in/horticulture/ferti_schedule.pdf 

 

Stage 

Crop stage 

Duration in days 

Fertilizer Grade 

Total Fertilizer (kg/ha) 

Nutrient applied 

N 

P 

K 

Transplanting to plant establishment Stage 

10 

19:19:19 

65.78 

12.5 

12.5 

12.5 

13:00:45 

27.77 

3.61 

12.5 

Urea (46%N) 

8.44 

3.88 

Flower initiation to lowering 

30 

12:61:00 

40.98 

4.92 

25 

13.0:45 

222.22 

28.89 

100 

Urea (46%N) 

100.27 

46.12 

Flowering to fruit set 

30 

19:19:19 

65.78 

12.5 

12.5 

12.5 

13.045 

138.88 

18.05 

62.5 

Urea (46%N) 

63.9 

29.39 

Alternate day from picking 

80 

12:61:00 

20.49 

2.46 

12.5 

13:00:45 

111.11 

14.44 

50 

Urea (46%N) 

50.14 

23.06 

 

Use of Plant Growth Regulators (PGR) for Good Yield  


PGR product  

Technical content  

Dosage  

Time of application  

Syngenta Isabion 

 Amino acids and Nutrients  

 2 ml per lit of water 

  Flowering, Fruiting, Ripening stage  

Multiplex Samras 

  Amino Acids 

 2-3 ml per lit of water 

  Flowering, Fruiting stage  

Bayer Ambition 

  Amino acids & Fulvic acids and Micro Elements, 

  2-3 ml per lit of water 

 

 Transplanting, Flowering, Fruiting stage  

 Sumitomo Progibb &

Indofil Indolizer 

 Gibberellic acid  

 2.5 gm / 100-lit water 

 Fruiting stage  

 Syngenta Cultar 

  2-3 ml per lit of water 

 

 5 ml/15 lit of water 

Flowering stage, Fruiting stage  


(*DAT – Days after transplanting) 

Pest and Insect Management in tomato crop: 

Pest  

Symptoms  

Control Measures  

Whitefly  

Whitefly attack on tomatoes can result in chlorotic spots, yellowing, downward curling, drying of leaves, and serve as a vector for tomato leaf curl disease. 

Install 4 – 6 yellow sticky traps per acre. Spray Verticillium lecanii  at 5 ml/L of water. Spray Actara Insecticide at 0.5 gm/L of water. Spray Confidor Insecticide at 0.8 – 1 ml/L of water.    

Fruit Borer 

The borer larvae consume the inner content of the fruit by making circular holes on the surface and partially penetrating fruits to consume the inner contents. 

Use Tapas Helic-O-lure with funnel trap at 6 per acre. Spray 2 ml of Plethora Insecticide mixed in 1 L of water. Spray Cigna Insecticide at 1.5 – 2 ml/L of water.  

Pinworm (Tuta absoluta ) 

Tuta absoluta infestation in tomatoes can cause leaf and stem mining, along with the presence of pinholes on fruits. 

Install 4 – 6 yellow sticky traps per acre. Spray Verticillium lecani  at 5 ml/L of water. Spray Actara Insecticide at 0.5 gm/L of water. Spray Confidor Insecticide at 0.8 – 1 ml/L of water.    

Leaf Miner 

The presence of serpentine mines on leaves and subsequent drying and dropping of leaves are common symptoms of damage caused by the Serpentine leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii) in tomato plants. 

Install 4 – 6 yellow sticky traps per acre. Spray Verticillium lecani  at 5 ml/L of water. Spray Actara Insecticide at 0.5 gm/L of water. Spray Confidor Insecticide at 0.8 – 1 ml/L of water.    

Mealybug 

Mealybug infestation on tomatoes causes the presence of white, cottony masses on leaves, stems, and fruit, as well as stunted growth and yellowing of leaves. 

Neem oil 1500 ppm - 2-3 ml per litre of water 

Beauveria bassiana / Verticillium lecani- 5 gm per litre of water  

Acephate  75 SP- 1.5 gm per litre of water 

Imidacloprid 17.8 %SL - 0.4 ml per litre of water 

Thrips 

Thrips feeding on tomato plants result in crinkling and curling of leaves due to sap extraction, giving a silvery or bronze appearance. Additionally, affected flower buds become brittle and eventually drop off. 

Imidacloprid - 17.8 %  SL- 0.4 ml 

Acetamiprid -20 %SP- 0.4 gm per litre of water 

Blue sticky traps - 6 traps per acre  

Neem oil -1500 ppm - 2-3 ml per litre of water 

Red Spider Mite 

Red spider mite infestation on tomato plants leads to affected leaves turning reddish brown and bronzy. In severe cases, the presence of larvae results in silken webbing on the leaves, causing them to wither and dry. The infestation can also impact flower and fruit formation 

Neem oil - 1500 ppm- 5 ml per litre of water 

EPN Army - 1-2 kg per acre 

Bayer Oberon - 0.4 ml per litre of water 

Dhanuka omit - 2.5 ml per litre of water 

Crystal Abacin - 1ml per litre of water 

Root Rot Nematode 

Infected plants may show signs of yellowing of the leaves or chlorosis and wilting.  

 

Presence of small galls on the roots. 

Trichoderma viride- 1ml or 3 gm per litre of water 

Pseudomonas fluorescence - 1ml or 3 gm per litre of water  

Paecilomyces lilacinus - (Drenching) - 4 ml per litre of water 

 

Buy the Best Insecticides for Tomato Crop Online at Agriplex India

Common Disease in Tomato 

Disease 

Symptoms  

Control Measures  

Damping Off 

Damping off in tomatoes occurs in two stages: pre-emergence and post-emergence. In the pre-emergence phase, seedlings are killed just before they reach the soil surface, resulting in the complete rotting of the seedlings. In the post-emergence phase, the infection targets the young tissues at the collar level, causing them to become soft, and water-soaked, and leading to seedling collapse or toppling over. 

copper oxychloride - 3 gm per litre of water  

Trichoderma viride- 1ml / 3gm per litre of water 

Bacterial stem and fruit canker 

Spots on leaves, stems, and fruits Wilting of leaves and shoots,  cracks and cankers with slimy bacterial ooze, and small water-soaked spots with white halos on fruits that become raised, tan-colored, and rough in the center. 

Blue copper / Blitox ( copper oxychloride)- 3 gm per litre of water+ streptocycline - 0.1 gm per litre of water 

Early Blight 

Small, black lesions on older foliage, which enlarge and develop concentric rings in a bull's eye pattern.Yellowing of surrounding tissue and potential foliage loss in high temperature and humidity conditions. 

 Mancozeb- 2.5 gm per litre of water 

Chlorothalonil - 2gm per litre of water 

Propiconazole - 2ml per litre of water 

Bacterial Leaf Spot 

Small, brown, water-soaked circular spots with a yellowish halo on infected leaves, potentially leading to defoliation on older plants.Water-soaked spots on green fruits that enlarge into raised, irregular, light brown lesions with a rough, scabby surface; ripe fruits are unaffected. 

Blue copper / Blitox ( copper oxychloride)- 3 gm per litre of water+ streptocycline - 0.1 gm per litre of water 

Bacterial Wilt 

Rapid and complete wilting of mature plants, with lower leaves potentially dropping before wilting occurs. The presence of bacterial ooze appears as a white streak when infected plant parts are cut and immersed in clear water. 

Pseudomonas- 1 ml/ 3gm per litre of water 

Copper oxychloride -3gm per litre of water 

Fusarium wilt 

Veinlet clearing and leaf chlorosis, leading to wilting and death of younger leaves, progressing to complete plant wilting within days. Yellowing of lower leaves, subsequent leaf wilting, browning of the vascular system, stunted growth, and plant death. 

Trichoderma viride- 1ml / 3 gm per litre of water 

Copper oxychloride -3gm per litre of water 

Buy Best Fungicides for Tomato Crop Online at Agriplex India

Harvesting: 

The ideal time to harvest tomatoes varies depending on the specific variety and intended use. Tomato plants generally start producing fruits around two to three months after planting, and it takes another four to six weeks for the fruits to ripen fully. 

The yielding starts after 50 to 60 days of sowing. The picking can be done every 10 to 15 days intervals from the date of first picking. A farmer can go for picking about five times until the last harvest. 

Yield 

  • Varieties: 30 - 40 t / ha 
  • Hybrids: 80 - 95 t / ha

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