Sweet Secrets: Unlocking the Nutrient Power of Sugarcane

  • , द्वारा Agriplex India
  • 11 मिनट पढ़ने का समय

Sugar Cane Nutrient Deficiency

Karnataka is one of the major sugarcane and sugar-producing states in the country as sugarcane has been cultivated in large areas for many years for the production of jaggery, unrefined sugar and white sugar. It is also a major provider of livelihood to millions of agricultural families and their dependents particularly in rural areas. In Karnataka, the sugarcane is cultivated over an area of 4.80 lakh ha with production of 36.76 million tones of sugarcane and productivity of 85.50 tones per hectare. Belagavi, Bagalkot, Mandya, Vijayapur and Bidar are the leading districts in terms of area under sugarcane. Karnataka has tremendous potential for increasing cane cultivation and achieving higher yields, as the soil and climatic conditions are most favourable for planting the cane in different seasons. In the state, Belagavi district ranked first in area occupying 1.15 lakh hectares and producing 9.84 million tones.

Farmers are aware of the Pest and Diseases of sugarcane and, we have good scientists and good resources to diagnose and control measures for Pest and Diseases. However, diagnosing the right nutrient deficiency and providing suitable nutrient recommendations is a vital key tool to address the issue in Sugar cane Cultivation. Before going for sugar cane cultivation, we suggest to our Humble farmers to check Soil Nutrient Status by getting analysed soil samples at NABL accreted Soil labs. In this chapter let us understand the Nutrient Deficiency in Sugar Cane and Corrections measures.

 Nitrogen

  1. Older leaves first show Nitrogen deficiency.
  2. less root mass and reduced tillering
  3. leaf sheaths prematurely separate from the stalk.
  4. Inter nodes length reduced and retardation of plant growth.
  5. If Nitrogen deficiency is severe all leaves of sugarcane exhibit a yellow-green colour and older leaves die back.

Phosphorus

  1. Older leaves first show symptoms of Phosphorus deficiency.
  2. Leaf reddening usually occurs with Phosphorus deficiency when the plant is young, and temperature is high.
  3. Phosphorus deficiency causes short and slender stalks.
  4. Older leaf sheath prematurely dies.
  5. Red and purple discolouration of tips and margins
  6. Reduction in length of sugarcane stalks,
  7. Reduces cane thickness and becomes taper rapidly at growing points.
  8. Poor development of root and Reduced tillering.

Potassium

  1. Yellowing and marginal drying of older leaves and Depressed growth
  2. Orange-yellow colour appears in the older lower leaves which develop numerous chlorotic spots that later become brown with dead centre resulting in a ‘firing’ appearance.
  3. Reddish discolouration which is confined to the epidermal cells of the upper surfaces and midribs of the leaves.
  4. Poor root growth with fewer members of root hairs.

Calcium

  1. Mottling and chlorosis of older leaves
  2. Rusty appearance and premature death of older leaves
  3. However, Ca deficiency is uncommon.

Magnesium

  1. Magnesium deficiency is first evident in older leaves.
  2. Red necrotic lesions result in a “rusty” appearance.
  3. Severe Mg deficiency, the stalk may become stunted and severely “rusted” and brown.
  4. Internal browning of the stalk may also occur.

Sulphur

  1. Symptoms are mottled chlorotic streaks running the full length of the leaf blade.
  2. Young leaf showing chlorosis and purple leaf margins.
  3. Leaves are narrower and shorter than normal; stalks are slender.

Zinc

  1. Zinc deficiency is first evident on the younger leaves.
  2. A broad band of yellowing in the leaf margin occurs.
  3. The midrib and leaf margins remain green except when the deficiency is severe. Red lesions are often noticed.
  4. The lesions may be associated with a fungus that prefers to grow in Zn-deficient tissues.
  5. The severity of Zn deficiency can be highly variable. Symptoms are increased with liming and when low Zn subsoils are exposed to the surface.

Iron

  1. Iron deficiency is first evident in young leaves.
  2. Iron deficiency occurs on high pH calcareous soils.
  3. Young leaves where pale stripes with scanty chlorophyll content occur between parallel lines.
  4. Leaves turn completely white, even in the veins and midribs.
  5. Restricted Root growth.

Boron

  1. The symptoms of B deficiency appear on young leaves of sugarcane.
  2. Boron-deficient plants have distorted leaves,
  3. Young leaves may not unfurl from the whorl when Boron deficiency is severe.

Copper Role

  1. It is a constituent of several enzyme systems involved in building and converting amino acids to proteins.
  2. Copper is important in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.

Copper Deficiency

  1. Copper deficiency generally appears first in young leaves.
  2. Green splotches are an early symptom.
  3. Internode elongation will be greatly reduced when Cu deficiency is severe.

Manganese Role

  1. It is a constituent of several enzyme systems involved in building and converting amino acids to proteins.
  2. Copper is important in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
  3. It is important to the formation of lignin in plant cell walls which contributes to the structural strength of the cells, and the cane.

Manganese Deficiency

  1. Manganese deficiency first appears on younger leaves.
  2. Interveinal chlorosis occurs from the leaf tip toward the middle of the leaf.
  3. Under severe Mn deficiency, the entire leaf becomes bleached.

Molybdenum Role

  1. Helps in the assimilation of nitrogen in plants.

Molybdenum Deficiency

  1. Molybdenum deficiency is seen on older leaves.
  2. Short longitudinal chlorotic streaks on the apical one-third of the leaf.
  3. Short longitudinal chlorotic streaks on the top one-third of the leaf.
  4. Short and slender stalks
  5. Slow vegetative growth.


NPK Schedule

As per the RDF by Universities Sugar Cane Requires N:100, P: 40, K:50 kg/acre Apply a full dose of Phosphorus Single Super Phosphate 250 kg/acre as basal dosage. Whereas 217 kg of nitrogen and 90 kg of Potash in three equal splits at 30, 60 and 90 days

Farmyard manure/compost @ 8-10 ton/acre, 150-250 kg Annapurna, 10-15 kg of Navajeevan G or 5-10 kg or 2 kg of Multiplex Green Booster 

Nitrogen

Sett Treatment Sett treatment with Multiplex Aadhar Azospirillum/ Multiplex Nalpak Prepare the slurry with 1 to 2 kg of Multiplex Aadhar / Multiplex Nalpak in sufficient water and soak the setts in the slurry for 15 minutes before planting.

Soil Application of Urea timely as 75 kg on 30, 60 and 90 days

2 to 3 Sprays of Urea 1-2 % or Multiplex Pramuk 3g/Litre at an interval of 30 days

Phosphorus

Sett Treatment Sett treatment with Multiplex Durga/ Multiplex / Multiplex Nalpak Prepare the slurry with 1 to 2 kg of Multiplex Durga / Multiplex Nalpak in sufficient water and soak the setts in the slurry for 15 minutes before planting.

Soil Application of 250 kg SSP during Basal Application

2 to 3 Sprays Foliar spray of DAP 2% or Multiplex Multi PK 0: 52: 34 or MAP 12:61:0 4 to 5 grams/ litre at an interval of 15 days

Potassium

Sett Treatment Sett treatment with Multiplex Nalpak Prepare the slurry with 1 to 2 kg of Multiplex Nalpak in sufficient water and soak the setts in the slurry for 15 minutes before planting.

Soil Application of MOP 90 kg/acre in three splits at 30, 60 and 90 days

Spray Only K 0:0:50/ Twin 13:0:45 4 to 5 grams/ litre at an interval of 15 days

Calcium

Soil Application

Apply Multiplex Samruddhi at the time of final land preparation Apply Calcium Nitrate 5 kg/ acre thrice at an interval of 10 days

Spray at least 2 to 3 sprays of Calcium Nitrate 3 to 5 grams/ litre or Pusti Ca 1 g/litre

Spray Pusti 0.5g / litre or Multiplex Chamak Plus 3 ml/ litre 

Magnesium

Apply Multiplex Samruddhi 50 kg/ acre at the time of final land preparation!

Apply Multiplex Magnesium Sulphate 5 to 10 kg/ acre Or Apply Sugar Cane Special 5 kg at the time of sowing and another 5 kg before 90 days after sowing.

Spray Multiple Moti Mg 0.5 g/litre or MgSo4 3 grams/litre 

Sulphur

Apply Multiplex Samruddhi 50 kg/acre or Gypsum 200 kg/ acre at the time of final land preparation.

Apply Multiplex Fertisulp G   5 to 10 kg/ acre.

2 Sprays of Multiplex Liquid Sulphur 2.5 ml/litre at an interval of 15 days

Zinc

Apply Multiplex Zinc Sulphate 10 to 15 kg/ acre.

Apply Zinc High/Sugar Cane Special 5 kg at the time of sowing and another 5 kg before 90 days after sowing.

Apply Multiplex Zinc Sulphate  5 to 10 kg/ acre.

2 Sprays of Multiplex Zinc High/ Multiplex Zinc Sulphate 3 g/litre/ Zinc EDTA 0.5 g/litre

Copper

Apply Multiplex Zinc High/Sugar Cane Special 5 kg at the time of sowing and another 5 kg before 90 days after sowing.

2 Sprays of Multiplex Neel Cu 0.5 g/litre at an interval of 15 days 

Manganese

Apply Multiplex Zinc High/ Sugar Cane Special 5 kg at the time of sowing and another 5 kg before 90 days after sowing.

Apply Manganese Sulphate 5 to 10 kg/acre.

2 Sprays of Multiplex Magnum Mn 0.5 gram/ litre or Multiplex Manganese Sulphate 3 g/ Litre

Boron

Apply Multiplex Zinc High /Sugar Cane Special 5 kg at the time of sowing and another 5 kg before 90 days after sowing.

Apply Borax 2.5 to 5 kg acre.

2 Sprays of Multiplex Allbor 1 g/ litre at an interval of 15 Days

Molybdenum 

Apply Sugar Cane Special 5 kg at the time of sowing and another 5 kg before 90 days after sowing.

2 Sprays of Multiplex Molybdenum 0.5 g/litre at an interval of 15 Days

 

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