Watermelon Cultivation: A Step-by-Step Guide

  • , ಮೂಲಕ Agriplex India
  • 7 ನಿಮಿಷ ಓದುವ ಸಮಯ

Watermelons are a delicious and refreshing fruit that can be grown in many parts of the world. They are a warm-season crop, so they need warm temperatures and full sun to thrive. Watermelons are also heavy feeders, so they require a lot of fertilizer.

Soil Preparation

The soil for watermelon cultivation should be well-drained and fertile. The pH of the soil should be between 6.0 and 7.0. If the soil is not well-drained, it can lead to root rot and other problems. The soil should be amended with compost or manure before planting.

Popular Watermelon Seeds Available Online   

Nursery preparation

Watermelon nursery can be prepared in two ways:

  • Polythene bags: Fill 200-gauge polythene bags (10 cm diameter and 15 cm height) with a 1:1:1 ratio of red soil, sand, and farmyard manure or Annapurna.
  • Seedling Trays: Use Seedling Trays (each having 98 cells) to raise seedlings. Fill the portrays with the same 1:1:1 mixture.

Transplant the seedlings to the main field when they are about 12 days old


Watermelon seeds can be planted directly in the ground or planted in pots indoors. If planted directly in the ground, the seeds should be planted 1-2 inches deep and 2-3 feet apart.


Watermelons require a lot of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They should be fertilized every 2-3 weeks with a balanced fertilizer. A good fertilizer for watermelons is 10-20-10.


Stage Crop stage duration n in days Fertilizer grade total l Fertilizer (kg/ha)
1 Crop establishment stage 10 19:19:19 + MN 26.81
Urea 11
2 Vegetative stage 30 12-61-0 12.28
13-0-45 66
Urea 109
3 Flower initiation to first picking 30 12-61-0 12.28
13-0-45 44
Urea 115
4 Harvesting stage 45 19:19:19 + MN 26.31
13-0-45 78
Urea 97.52


Watermelons need regular watering, especially during the flowering and fruiting stages. The soil should be kept moist, but not soggy.

Plant Growth Regulators

Usage of Plant Growth Hormones increases yield by suppressing male flowers and increasing female flowers and also improves fruit quality by increasing size, sweetness, and color.

Popular PGR that can be used in Watermelon Crops are

1) Isabion - Syngenta Isabion is the world’s purest and the most concentrated product of Amino acids of natural origin which promotes root growth and vigorous development of the buds, induces greater flowering, and promotes the pollination and fruit set of fruits.

2) Samras Multiplex Samras contains 18 Types of plant Derived Amino Acids, which enhance the uptake of major, secondary, and micronutrients By acting as a natural chelating agent, thus, improving flower and fruit setting and enhancing drought resistance in plants. 

3) Progibb Easy - Progibb Easy is a highly effective growth promoter – increasing the size and quality of fruits, vegetables, and other crops, essential for optimum growth and development.

4) Hoshi - Sumitomo Hoshi Contains Gibberellic Acid 0.001% L, which Increases the size of plants, stimulates flowers, enlarges fruit, and boosts crop yields.

5) Ambition Ambition is Bayer’s advanced crop supplement containing amino acid and fulvic acid with the view to enhancing crop efficiency. Ambition helps crops reach their true potential by managing nutrient efficiency, improving plant defense mechanisms, and enhancing crop performance

6) Planofix - BayePlanofix is an aqueous solution containing 4.5% (w/w) of Alpha naphthyl acetic acid active ingredient. Planofix is a plant growth regulator (PGR) used to induce flowering, preventing the shedding of flower buds and unripe fruits

Pest and Disease Management

Watermelons are susceptible to several pests and diseases, including:

  • Spider mites: Spider mites can cause leaves to turn yellow and drop off. They can be controlled with Dhanuka Omite or  Neem oil.
  • Squash bugs: Squash bugs can suck the sap from leaves and stems, causing them to wilt and die. They can be controlled with Bayer Confidor or Lancer Gold.
  • Powdery mildew: Powdery mildew is a fungus that can cause white, powdery spots on leaves. It can be controlled with a spray of Bayer Nativo.
  • Fusarium wilt: Fusarium wilt is a soil-borne fungus that can cause wilting and death of plants. There is no cure for fusarium wilt, so it is important to plant resistant varieties or use Trichoderma Viride.


Watermelons are ready to harvest when they are fully ripe. The rind will be hard and the flesh will be a deep, uniform color. To check for ripeness, thump the watermelon. A ripe watermelon will have a hollow sound.


Watermelons can be stored at room temperature for a few days. They can also be stored in the refrigerator for up to a week.

Watermelon Cultivation Tips

  • For the best yield, plant watermelons in full sun.
  • Watermelons need a lot of water, so water them regularly, especially during the flowering and fruiting stages.
  • Fertilize watermelons every 2-3 weeks with a balanced fertilizer.
  • Mulch around watermelon plants to help keep the soil moist and to suppress weeds.
  • Watch for pests and diseases, and treat them promptly if they occur.
  • Harvest watermelons when they are fully ripe.


When can I harvest watermelons?

Maturity in watermelon can be judged by the withering of plants tendril, change in fruit belly colour, or ground spots to yellow and thumping test. The mature fruits on thumping gives a dull sound against the metallic sound of unripe fruits. However, the knack of recognizing a ripe melon comes with experience.

What type of soil does the crop need?

Sandy loam soils are best. Alluvial riverbeds are also good for watermelon. The soil should be well-drained and should have ample organic matter.

How to increase the production of watermelons on a plant?

The excessive vine growth can be pruned manually to restrict the green growth and promote more female flowers. If the apical shoot of the plant is pinched and 2 to 4 side shoots are allowed to grow, it gives a significantly higher fruit yield.

How to water this crop?

Application water should be restricted to the base of the plants and root zone only. Irrigation water should not wet the vines, especially when flowering, or fruit development is in progress, as this may promote diseases.


Watermelon cultivation is a relatively easy process. With proper care, watermelons can be grown in a variety of climates and soils. With a little effort, you can enjoy the sweet, juicy taste of watermelons from your garden.




  • The post was good and informative. Please keep up the good work.


    Nambi Rajan

  • I want to know how to give medicine and within what intervels. What fertilizer to give again time intervel. Please guide



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